Wednesday, July 23, 2008

Bitola Inscription in FYROM

There are many Historical and archaelogical proofs that show the Bulgarian apearance in the FYROM StateOne from the most known is the so called Bitola Inscription. It mention that the Jovan Vladislav, was the King of the supposing Macedonian State called him self as BULGARIAN EMPEROR.

The MENTIONED inscription found in the Monastirion (Bitola) at 1956 and they translated only some quotes that mention:

This inscription was engraved from the Jovan Vladislav,Bulgarian Emperor son of Aaron(brother of Samuil) his castle rebuild for the save and the life of the Bulgarians.

Who told that:
J.Zaiminov, H. Lunt and R. Mathiesen.
The only disagreement is the chronology of the inscription. The first said that estimated in 11 cent when the latter in 13 cent. But is known that the Slavmacedonians never allowed Greeks or Bulgarians in orders to make any archaeological corporation in theirs state.

The text of the inscription is partially damaged. The text in Old Bulgarian, with some conjectures made by Vladimir Moshin and Iordan Zaimov to reconstruct the damaged parts, reads as follows:

In the year 6523 (1015) since the creation of the world, this fortress, built and made by Ivan, Tsar of Bulgaria, was renewed with the help and the prayers of Our Most Holy Lady and through the intercession of her twelve supreme Apostles. The fortress was built as a haven and for the salvation of the lives of the Bulgarians. The work on the fortress of Bitola commenced on the twentieth day of October and ended on the [...] This Tsar was Bulgarian by birth, grandson of the pious Nikola and Ripsimia, son of Aaron, who was brother of Samuil, Tsar of Bulgaria, the two who routed the Greek army of Emperor Basil II at Stipone where gold was taken [...] and in [...] this Tsar was defeated by Emperor Basil in 6522 (1014) since the creation of the world in Klyutch and died at the end of the summer.

A translation of only the clearly readable parts is as follows:

“ In the year [...] since the creation of the world, this fortress, built and made by Ivan, Bulgarian autocrat, was renewed with the help and the prayers of Our Most Holy Lady and through the intercession of her twelve supreme apostles. The fortress was built as a haven and for the salvation of the lives of the Bulgarians. The work on the fortress of Bitola commenced on the twentieth day of October and ended on the [...] was Bulgarian by birth [...] pious son of Aaron [...] they both defeated [...] where was taken [...] and this Tsar [...] 6522 (1014) since the creation of the world [...] at the end."

  • H.Lunt, "On the Slavic Palimpsests", American Contributions to the 4th International Congress of Slaviststs,The Hague 1958,191-209
  • R. Mathiesen, " The Importance of the Bitola Inscription for Cyrillic Palaeography", South-East European journal,21 (1977) 1-2

Saturday, July 19, 2008

Ancient Macedonian Calendar

The Ancient Macedonian calendar is a lunisolar calendar that was in use in ancient Macedon in the 1st millennium BC. It consisted of 12 synodic lunar months (i.e. 354 days per year), which needed intercalary months to stay in step with the seasons. By the time the calendar was being used across the Hellenistic world, seven total embolimoi (intercalary months) were being added in each 19-year Metonic cycle.

The names of the ancient Macedonian Calendar remained in use in Syria even into the Christian era.

This is the Calendar used by Josephus, being in fact the Hebrew calendar with Macedonian names. An example of 6th century AD inscriptions from Decapolis, Jordan, bearing the Solar Macedonian calendar, start from the month Audynaeus.

The solar type was merged later with the Julian calendar. In Roman Macedonia, both calendars were used. The Roman one is attested in inscriptions with the name Kalandôn gen. καλανδῶν calendae and the Macedonian Hellenikei dat. Ἑλληνικῇ Hellenic.

Finally an inscription from Kassandreia of about ca. 306-298 BC bearing a month Ἀθηναιῶν Athenaion suggests that some cities may have their own months even after the 4th century BC Macedonian expansion.

  • Δίος (Dios, moon of October)
  • Απελλαίος (Apellaios, moon of November, also a Dorian month - Apellaiōn was a Tenian month)
  • Αυδυναίος or Αυδναίος (Audunaios or Audnaios, moon of December,Cretan month also)
  • Περίτιος (Peritios, moon of January) (and festival of the month; Peritia)
  • Δύστρος (Dystros, moon of February)
  • Ξανδικός or Ξανθικός (Xandikos or Xanthikos, moon of March) (and festival of the month; Xanthika , purifying the army ,Hesych.) - ( intercalated 6 times over a 19-year cycle)
  • Αρτεμίσιος or Αρταμίτιος (Artemisios or Artamitios, moon of April, also a Spartan, Rhodian and Epidaurian month - Artemisiōn was an Ionic month)
  • Δαίσιος (Daisios, moon of May)
  • Πάνημος or Πάναμος (Panēmos or Panamos, moon of June, also an Epidaurian, Miletian, Samian and Corinthian month)
  • Λώιος (Lōios, moon of July - Ομολώιος, Homolōios, was an Aetolian, Beotian and Thessalian month)
  • Γορπιαίος (Gorpiaios, moon of August)
  • Υπερβερεταίος (Hyperberetaios, moon of September - Hyperberetos was a Cretan month, intercalated0 -(once over a 19-year cycle)

It is interesting that Josephus throughout The “Antiquities” relates the Hebrew months with the Macedonian months – below are a few examples:

  • Book I, CHAPTER 3.3..... in the second month, (14) called by the Macedonians Dius, but by the Hebrews Marchesuan
  • Book II, CHAPTER 14.6..... and they should prepare themselves on the tenth day of the month Xanthicus, against the fourteenth, (which month is called by the Egyptians Pharmuth, Nisan by the Hebrews; but the Macedonians call it Xanthicus,)
  • Book III, CHAPTER 10.2 .........But on the seventh month, which the Macedonians call Hyperberetaeus
  • Book IV, CHAPTER 4.7........ He died on the first day of that lunar month which is called by the Athenians Hecatombaeon, by the Macedonians Lous, but by the Hebrews Abba
  • Book IV, CHAPTER 8.49 ........and he died on the last month of the year, which is called by the Macedonians Dystrus, but by us Adar, on the first day of the month.
  • Book VIII, CHAPTER 3.1........SOLOMON began to build the temple in the fourth year of his reign, on the second month, which the Macedonians call Artemisius, and the Hebrews Ju
  • Book XI , CHAPTER 5.4 ......on the twentieth day of the ninth month, which, according to the Hebrews, is called Tebeth, and according to the Macedonians, Apelleiu

The names of the Macedonian months Apellaios, Artemisios and Panemos are the same months as those in the Spartan calendar. Moreover, the months Artemisios and Panemos are also found in the Argive calendar.

  • The Macedonian month Apellaios is also a Spartan and Argive month.
  • The Macedonian month Panemos is also a Corinthian and Epidaurian month. It is also a Spartan and Argive month.
  • The Macedonian month Hyperberetaios is also a Cretan month.
  • The Macedonian month Artemisios is also a Spartan, Rhodian and Epidaurian month

We know that Spartans, Corinthians, Cretans, Epidaurians, Rhodians and Argives are of Dorian stock. Therefore, apart from the month Loios which is also a Thessalian (Aeolic) month, the Macedonian months are unique except for the four months mentioned above which are also found in the calendars of other Doric peoples.

So how do we explain that the names of three Macedonian months are the same as the three Spartan ones?

Sparta lies at the head of the Peloponnese, far away from Macedonia, in southern Greece. Ancient Macedonians and Spartans had no contacts but nevertheless they both shared three month's names. How come? Both Macedonians and Spartans are, as stated by Herodotus, of Dorian origin. Not only were Macedonia and Sparta both kingdoms and warlike people but they had the same Dorian origin. Moreover there are also Macedonian months whose names are shared with the calendars of Argos, Corinth, Epidaurus, Crete and Rhodes.

Argives, Corinthians, Cretans, Epidaurians and Rhodians are once again of Dorian stock.

A common ancestry amongst these Dorian peoples.


Sunday, July 13, 2008

Vergina Sun.....a Pan-Hellenic Symbol

The 16-pointed star "Sun of Vergina" as also named discovered in recent excavations as the symbol of the royal Macedonian dynasty of ancient Greece, and which is now being claimed as their own by the FYROM Slavmacedonians, was widely used in Attica during the classical period, long before its adoption by the Macedonian royal house.
The star, identical with the one decorating the larnax discovered in the tomb of Philip II of Macedonia, father of Alexander the Great, at Vergina in Northern Greece, has been found as one of the elements of decoration on at least four temples of the classical era, including two on the Acropolis of Athens.
The 16-ray star as it was designed on the golden larnaka that contained Philippos' remains. That appearance of the 16-ray star is possibly the only appearance on ancient findings.

The Macedonian Tomb of Lyson and Kallikles at Leucadia. The tomb is dated to ca. 200 B.C. The tomb was accidentaly discovered in 1942 at Leucadia Emathias and subsequently excavated by Ch. Macaronas. The results of the investigation were published in a book by his collaborator, Stella Miller, in 1993

Pan-Hellenic Sun in the rest of the Greek World

The "Macedonian Star" or "Sun of Vergina" is the continuation of the oldest ancient Greek symbol of the Sun, which also predominated on the Acropolis of Athens.
The Sun was also the most important symbol of the origin and continuation of all Hellenes: Arcadians, Athenians, Thessalians. Macedonians - their first God, before the Olympian Gods. The choice of this symbol was obvious and natural: one of the most vital elements on earth is the Sun - the source of life.
Many people call it "the Sun of Vergina" or the "Macedonian Star» but this is only a partial truth. This symbol has a history of more than three thousand years. It was the original logo or sign which the Proto- Hellenes used as their emblem for many centuries. The Macedonians simply continued the ancient Proto-Hellcnic heritage or tradition of their forefathers.
From the late 17th century AD, and in particular the 18th century, classical Greek civilization began to attract the ever-growing interest, curiosity and imagination of western Europeans. One manifestation of this was the numerous “journeys of discovery” undertaken by various scholars to the soil of “rediscovered Hellas” itself, which was then still part of the Ottoman Empire. Two such individuals were the young architects James Stuart and Nicholas Revett, who in 1751 arrived in Attica and immediately set about accurately recording the architectural details of surviving buildings of classical Athens and its surroundings.

In what follows, I present some samples of the "Pan-Hellenic Sun" from temples all over ancient Greek world…………

From Acropolis...Athens 5th BC..........

The below picture is from the Spartan Archaelogical museum and show figuirines dated 7th-8th BC (soldiers,horses,shields, birds e.t.c.). These figuirines found in the temple of the Artemidas Orthias.
Please give your attention in four thinks
  • The Artemis was also a Godness that worship from the Macedonians
  • The shields that showed in figuirines and clearly you can see the 8th or 16th star ancient Greek symbols.
  • The date of those figuirines estimated at 8th-7th cent, a close date years) that estimated the Greek settlement (Karanos) in Emathia.
  • The connections of the Spartan Symbols with the Macedonian Symbols. Actually both were Dorians.

Below is a picture from a Lacon Cratere of 6th cent. Of course you can see clearly the 16 star or Vergina Star.Located now in Louvre Museum.

More artifacts regarding the Pan-Hellenic sun located in........................

  • Vase found in an ancient Greek city in Sicily and is displayed in a museum in Naples. On this vase a woman is illustrated who according to the inscription is Hellas. Along with Hellas are Dias and Athena and on both sides of the gods the "sun of Vergina" is drawn.
  • Column's capital of Ionic order (5th century BC, Museum of Kavala), from a temple of an Athenian colony, Naples (present day Kavala), carries in the middle an exact duplicate symbol to that of Vergina. This temple (of Diana or Artemis) has been chronologically dated at 5th century BC, before the Macedonians expanded beyond the Paggaion mountain and a century before Philip's death.
  • Amphora from Milos (650 BC, National Archaeological Museum of Athens), on which Apollo and Artemis (Diana) are illustrated and on its neck Achilles and Memnon are fighting. Next to Artemis is a 16-ray symbol.
  • Cup (485-480 BC, museum of Louvre, Paris), where Agamemnon leads Brisida (for the possession of whom Achilles left the Trojan war) to his tent accompanied by Takthyvios and Diomedes. Agamemnon wears a royal collar with two 16-ray symbols.
  • Coin from Syracuse (260 BC, National Archaeological Museum of Athens). One side has the head of tyrant Ieron and on the other side goddess Nike riding a chariot driven by 4 horses. There is an inscription "BASILEOS IERONOS" (King Ieron) and above the word "BASILEOS" is the 16-ray symbol.
  • Crater (435 BC, British Museum, London). The Sun, Moon and Stars in humanoid form are riding a chariot. The head of the Sun resembles that of Vergina.
  • Crater (480 BC, Kunsthistoisches Museum, Vienna). Poseidon fights Polyvotis, who has a 16-ray symbol on his left breastplate.
  • Crater (4th century BC, Staatlishe Antikensammlungen, Munich), Eos (Aurora), the morning star, rides her chariot accompanied by the sun. There are six 16-ray symbols here.
  • Pitcher (490 BC, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston). Danae carries her baby Perseus. There is also an urn with lionlike legs carrying two 16-ray symbols exactly the same as that of Vergina.
  • Part of a kalpis, a pitcher with three handles (460 BC, Ermitaz museum, Petroupolis). Amphiaraos, mythical hero of Argos, bids farewell to his wife Eriphyle. The 16-ray symbol is on his breastplate.
  • Crater (4th century BC, Staatlishe Antikensammlungen, Munich), where Orpheus is in Hades. The only 16-ray symbol there is exactly the same as the one from Vergina.
  • Water-jug (480 BC, museum of Louvre, Paris) baby Hercules wrestles the snakes. His cradle is adorned with a 16-ray symbol exactly the same as the one from Vergina.
  • Amphora (515 BC, Staatlishe Antikensammlungen, Munich). Hercules is on Olympus and there are five 16-ray symbols.
  • Sicilian crater (350 BC, Archaeological museum, Lipari, Italy). Adrastos separates the quarreling heroes Polynice and Tideas. The palace is adorned with 16-ray symbols.

1-Istoria ton Ellinon (History of the Hellene), Domi, 2006
2-Andronikos, Discover the Vergina,1 984
3-Macedonia, Stavros Theofanides, 2006

Interview of Nicholas Hammond about Macedonia

Nicholas Hammond, one of the world’s best authorities in Macedonian history, stated the following in an interview with the magazine “Macedonian Echo” in February, 1993:

(Q): Who were the Macedonians ?

(A): The name of the ancient Macedonians is derived from Macedon, whowas the grandchild of Deukalion, the father of all Greeks. This we mayinfer from Hesiod’s genealogy. It may be proven that Macedonians spoke Greek since Macedon, the ancestor of Macedonians, was a brother of Magnes, the ancestor of Thessalians, who spoke Greek.

(Q): Isn’t it true that Demosthenes called them “barbarians” ?

(A): The speeches of Demosthenes, that deal with Philip as the enemy, should not be interpreted as an indication of the barbarian origins of Macedonians, but as an expression of conflict between two differentpolitical systems: the democratic system of the city-state (e.g.Athens) versus the monarchy (Kingdom of Macedonia). Personally, I believe that it is the common language, which gives onethe opportunity to share a common civilization. Thus the language is themain factor that forms a national identity.

(Q): What was the geographic location of the Macedonian Kingdom ?

(A): It should be emphasized that Macedonia occupied only the area of Pieria, as is characteristically mentioned by Hesiod and Thucydides. It had to wait until Philip II ascended to the throne and expanded hiskingdom by occupying, among others, the Thracians and the PAEONIANS. The Paeonians were allowed to keep their customs, which was a sign ofliberal policy of Philip after each conquest. From Homer we learn thatthe Paeonians had their own language and that they fought on the side ofthe Trojans. They lived in the area around Skopje , and this is thereason I suggested to Patrick Leigh Fermor to suggest in his article inthe Independent the name of “PAEONIA” as the most suitable for Skopje .

(Q): Given your experience as a liaison officer in German occupied Macedonia, do you believe that there may be a Macedonian nation ?

(A): NO. Macedonia was under Ottoman occupation until the beginning ofthe 20th century. With the decline of the Ottoman empire, the GreatPowers began to seek spheres of influence in the Balkans. The result wasthe emergence, during the latter part of the 19th century, of theMacedonian revolutionary movements.The Serbian IMRO, the Bulgarian VMRO and the Greek “Ethniki Etairia” were formed with the support of certainGreat Powers with the goal of organizing revolutionary units in thearea. After the Balkan wars, the Macedonia (the geographical region) wasdivided between Serbia, Greece and Bulgaria. The movement for thecreation of a Slav-controlled Greater Macedonia continued until 1934,when the Yugoslav government declared IMRO illegal, as a good willgesture to Greece. Therefore, given the struggle of the three ethnicgroups (Serbs, Greeks, Bulgarians) for the control of Macedonia AND THEABSENCE OF ANY LOCAL NATIONAL MOVEMENT, we can talk of Macedonia only asa GEOGRAPHICAL ENTITY AND NOT as A NATION.

(Q): Tell us of your experience in Northern Greece during the German occupation.

(A): I fell with the parachute into Greece in 1943. Our goal was to cooperate as liaison officers with the Greek resistance against the Germans. Tito’s plan was to found a Greater Macedonia, that would include Greek Macedonia and South Yugoslavia; in practice it would beunder Russian control. In January 1944, Tito formed a government and declared a federal Yugoslavia that would be composed of six different republics, the southern most of which would be called Macedonia. It ishere that the name Macedonia appears at the fore front of a plan of aGreater Macedonia against Greece. The same year, Tito’s guerillas invaded Greece three or four times and attempted to enlist men from slavophone villages in the area of Florina. Based on my knowledge, they were unsuccessful.

(Q): Could you please explain, who are these slavophones you refer to ?

(A): They are people who have been living in the area for centuries, perhaps from the time of the Slavic invasions of the 7th century. Nevertheless, they have been integrated with the population and consider themselves Greek.

Friday, July 04, 2008

Macedonian Inscription in FYROM

Makedonia (Paionia, Lower) — Idomene? (Isar-Marvinci) — 181/182 AD — ZAnt 15 (1965) 137-147

"μακεδονιαρχῶν τὸν ναὸν τη πατρίδισὺν παντὶ τω κόσμῳ τῷ θκτʹ ἔτει."
"Των αρχόντων των Μακεδόνων την πατρίδα και παντός του κόσμου το θκτ έτος."
Of Macedonian rulers, the homeland and all the world in 181 A.D.( Gregorian calendar) year
The above inscription founded in Historical Upper Macedonia in Paionia region (lower FYROM) and now located it in the entrance of the FYROM goverment building.